1.)AERODYNAMIC DRAG– is the air resistance to the motion of the vehicle.This consists of profile drag, induced drag, skin friction drag, interference drag, and cooling and ventilation drag.

2.)AERODYNAMIC LIFT– is the vertical component of the resultant force caused by the pressure distribution on the vehicle body.

3.)AIR BRAKE – A braking system which uses compressed air to supply the effort required to apply brakes.

4.)BOOSTER – Device incorporated in a car system (such as brake and steering),to increase pressure output or decrease amount of effort required to operate or both.

5.)CAMBER ANGLE – The outward (positive) or inward (negative) angle of the wheel centre line to absolute vertical.

6.)CASTER ANGLE – The rearward (positive) or forward (negative) angle of the steering axis to absolute vertical.

7.)CLUTCH PEDAL – A pedal in the drivers compartment that operates the clutch.

8.)CLUTCH SLIPPAGE – A condition in which the engine over revs during shifting or acceleration.

9.)DUAL BRAKE SYSTEM – Tandem or dual master cylinder to provide a brake system that has two separate hydraulic systems, one operating the front brakes, the other operating the rear brakes.

10.)EPICYCLIC GEAR– In the epicyclic gearing, at least one gear not only rotates about its own axis, but also rotates about some other axis.



New product development (NPD) covers the complete process of bringing a new product to market. New product development is described as the transformation of a market opportunity into a product available for sale.

The eight stages or process or steps involved in the development of a new product are listed as follows:

1. Idea generation (Problem identification)
The first step in new-product development is idea generation.
New ideas can be generated by:
  • ·         Conducting marketing research to find out the consumers' needs and wants.
  • ·         Inviting suggestions from consumers.
  • ·         Inviting suggestions from employees.
  • ·         Brainstorming suggestions for new-product ideas.
  • ·         Searching in different markets viz., national and international markets for new-product ideas.
  • ·         Getting feedback from agents or dealers about services offered by competitors.
  • ·         Studying the new products of the competitors.

2. Idea screening (Problem Definition)
Most companies have a "Idea Committee." This committee studies all the ideas very carefully. They select the good ideas and reject the bad ideas.

Before selecting or rejecting an idea, the following questions are considered or asked:
  • ·         Is it necessary to introduce a new product?
  • ·         Can the existing plant and machinery produce the new product?
  • ·         Can the existing marketing network sell the new product?
  • ·         When can the new product break even?

If the answers to these questions are positive, then the idea of a new-product development is selected else it is rejected. This step is necessary to avoid product failure.

3. Concept Generation

In concept generation product concepts like physical dimensions,functionality and specifications are generated.

4. Concept testing
Concept testing is done after concept generation. It is different from test marketing.
In this stage of concept testing, the company finds out:
  • ·         Whether the consumers understand the product idea or not?
  • ·         Whether the consumers need the new product or not?
  • ·         Whether the consumers will accept the product or not?

Here, a small group of consumers is selected. They are given full information about the new product. Then they are asked what they feel about the new product. They are asked whether they like the new product or not. So, concept testing is done to find out the consumers' reactions towards the new product. If most of the consumers like the product, then business analysis is done.

5. Business analysis
Business analysis is a very important step in new-product development. Here, a detailed business analysis is done. The company finds out whether the new product is commercially profitable or not.

Under business analysis, the company finds out...

  • ·         Whether the new product is commercially profitable or not?
  • ·         What will be the cost of the new product?
  • ·         Is there any demand for the new product?
  • ·         Whether this demand is regular or seasonal?
  • ·         Are there any competitors of the new product?
  • ·         How the total sales of the new product be?
  • ·         What will be the expenses on advertising, sales promotion, etc.?
  • ·         How much profit the new product will earn?

So, the company studies the new product from the business point of view. If the new product is profitable, it will be accepted else it will be rejected.

6. Product development
At this stage, the company has decided to introduce the new product in the market. It will take all necessary steps to produce and distribute the new product. The production department will make plans to produce the product. The marketing department will make plans to distribute the product. The finance department will provide the finance for introducing the new product. The advertising department will plan the advertisements for the new product. However, all this is done as a small scale for Test Marketing.

7. Test marketing
Test marketing means to introduce the new product on a very small scale in a very small market. If the new product is successful in this market, then it is introduced on a large scale. However, if the product fails in the test market, then the company finds out the reasons for its failure. It makes necessary changes in the new product and introduces it again in a small market. If the new product fails again the company will reject it.
Test marketing reduces the risk of large-scale marketing. It is a safety device. It is very time-consuming. It must be done especially for costly products.

8. Commercialization
If the test marketing is successful, then the company introduces the new product on a large scale, say all over the country. The company makes a large investment in the new product. It produces and distributes the new product on a huge scale. It advertises the new product on the mass media like TV, Radio, Newspapers and Magazines, etc.

9. Review of market performance
The company must review the marketing performance of the new product.
It must answer the following questions:
  • ·         Is the new product accepted by the consumers?
  • ·         Are the demand, sales and profits high?
  • ·         Are the consumers satisfied with the after-sales-service?
  • ·         Are the middlemen happy with their commission?
  • ·         Are the marketing staffs happy with their income from the new                   product?
  • ·         Is the Marketing manager changing the marketing mix according to            the changes in the environment?
  • ·         Are the competitors introducing a similar new product in the market?

The company must continuously monitor the performance of the new product. They must make necessary changes in their marketing plans and strategies else the product will fail.


1.)ADDITIVE – A substance added to fuel, or oil or grease which improves
the properties of the same.

2.)AFTER BOIL – Boiling of the fuel in the carburettor or coolant in the engine immediately after the engine is stopped.

3.)AFTER BURNING – In an internal combustion engine, the persistence of the combustion process beyond the period proper to the working cycle,i.e., into the expansion period.

4.)ANILINE POINT – The lowest temperature at which an oil is completely miscible with an equal volume of aniline.

5.)ATOMIZATION – The spraying of a liquid through a nozzle so that the liquid is broken into a very fine mist

6.)BACKFIRE (exhaust system) – Passage of unburned air fuel mixture into the exhaust system where it is ignited by some hot spot and causes a
loud explosion.

7.)CATALYTIC CONVERTER – A muffler like device for use in an exhaust system that converts harmful gases in the exhaust into harmless gases by promoting a chemical reaction between a catalyst and the pollutants.

8.)DETONATION – An uncontrolled instantaneous second explosion in a spark ignition engine, after the spark occurs, with excessively rapid burning of a portion of the compressed air fuel mixture (end charge almost exploding) resulting in a spark knock, or pinging noise.

9.)FLASH POINT– It is the temperature at which the quantities of vapour which a combustible fuel emits into the atmosphere are sufficient to allow a spark to ignite the vapour air mixture above the fluid.

10.)PING – The sound resulting from sudden auto ignition of the airfuel charge in a SI engine combustion chamber. Characteristic sound of detonation.


The First law of thermodynamics states that energy is neither created nor destroyed. Thus the total energy of the universe is a constant. However, energy can certainly be transferred from one form to another form.
The 1st law of thermodynamics can be mathematically stated as follows:
§dQ (HEAT) = §dW (WORK)
During a thermodynamic cycle, a cyclic process the systems undergoes, the cyclic integral of heat added is equal to integral of work done. The first law equation can also be written in the form,
§(dQ – dW) = 0
Equation dU = dQ – dW is a corollary to the first law of thermodynamics. It shows that there exists a property internal energy (U) of the system, such that a change in its value is equal to the difference in heat entering and work leaving the system.
Another property named enthalpy (H) can also be defined now as a combination of properties U, p and V.
H = U + pV
For a reversible process, since dW = pdV, the first law of thermodynamics can also be written as
dQ = dU + pdV


1.)BACKHAND WELDING – A welding technique in which the welding
torch or gun is directed opposite to the progress of welding.

2.)BACK WELD – A weld deposited at the back of a single groove weld.

3.)COLD WELDING – A solid state welding process in which pressure is applied at room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial deformation at the weld.

4.)DEPTH OF FUSION – Distance that fusion extends into the base metal or previous pass from the surface melted during welding.

5.)DIFFUSION WELDING – A solid state welding process that produces coalescence of the faying surfaces by the application of pressure at elevated temperature.

6.)ELECTRO SLAG WELDING – A welding process producing coalescence of metals with molten slag that melts the filler metal and the surfaces of the workpieces. The weld pool is shielded by slag.

7.)FILLER METAL – Metal to be added in making a welded, brazed or soldered joint.

8.)FUSION ZONE – Area of base metal melted as determined on the crosssection of a weld.

9.)POST HEATING – Application of heat to an assembly after a welding,brazing, soldering, thermal spraying or thermal cutting.

10.)PRE HEATING – Application of heat to the base metal immediately before
welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying and cutting.


1.)ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY – Force per unit area required to move a surface at unit velocity, when it is separated by a fluid of unit thickness from a stationary surface.

2.)ADDITIVES – Chemical compounds used to alter the characteristics of lubricating oils.

3.)ANGLE OF REPOSE – The minimum inclination which a plane can have consistent with the body on it sliding down the plane by the force of gravity. It is the same as the friction angle.

4.)ANTI OXIDATION ADDITIVES – Chemical compounds added to decrease oxidation of the oil. These have a greater affinity for oxygen than does the oil.

5.)BATH LUBRICATION – Lubrication system in which the bearing contains a space filled with oil, which is in contact with a portion of the journal.

6.)BEARING OIL CLEARANCE – The space purposely provided between the revolving shaft and the bearing in which it rotates. Through this space lubricating oil can flow.

7.)CENTIPOISE – A unit of viscosity of a fluid used in figuring pressure drop etc.

8.)CRITICAL SPEED – The limiting or critical speed corresponding to a given pressure is that speed at which surface irregularities may intervene and so lead to seizure.

9.)FILM LUBRICATION – Type of lubrication in which the two metallic surfaces are separated by a continuous film of liquid oil of measurable thickness which forces itself between them.

10.FIRE POINT OF OIL – The temperature at which the oil vapour on the oil surface ignites and burns for at least five seconds, when heated gradually, under specified test conditions.


Electron beam machining (EBM) :-

Electron beam machining (EBM) is one of several industrial processes that use electron beams. Electron beam machining uses a high-velocity stream of electrons focused on the workpiece surface to remove material by melting and vaporization. A schematic of the EBM process is illustrated in the figure: 

An electron beam gun generates a continuous stream of electrons that are focused through an electromagnetic lens on the work surface. The electrons are accelerated with voltages of approx. 150,000 V to create velocities over 200,000 km/s. The lens is capable of reducing the area of the beam to a diameter as small as 0.025 mm. On impinging the surface, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy of extremely high density, which vaporizes the material in a very localized area. EBM must be carried out in a vacuum chamber to eliminate collision of the electrons with gas molecules.

Electron beam machining is used for a variety of high-precision cutting applications on any known material. Applications include drilling of extremely small diameter holes, down to 0.05 mm diameter, drilling of holes with very high depth-to-diameter ratios, more than 100:1, and cutting of slots that are only about 0.025 mm wide. Besides machining, other applications of the technology include heat treating and welding.

The process is generally limited to thin parts in the range from 0.2 to 6 mm thick. Other limitations of EBM are the need to perform the process in a vacuum, the high energy required, and the expensive equipment.