What is 5S?

5S is a practical method of dramatically improving the work environment. It is based on good housekeeping, establishing an orderly workplace and continuing to improve in the long term. 
5S is a particularly effective lean manufacturing tool, as it can engage and involve all employees who visually see the improvements to where they work. 5S is named after 5 Japanese words which broadly translated, describe 5 steps necessary to deliver improvements. These will be covered in more detail shortly. A good idea is to initially pilot 5S in a team or working area.
5S delivers reductions in many of the 7 wastes. An underpinning principle of 5S is an untidy, unclean and disorderly workplace is not productive. It discourages attention to detail and makes problems and defects difficult to spot, therefore impacting quality. From a human nature point of view, everybody prefers to work in a clean and tidy environment, rather than one full of clutter and mess.

The term 5S comes from five Japanese words:

  • Seiri
  • Seiton
  • Seiso
  • Seiketsu
  • Shitsuke

In English, these words are often translated to:
  • Sort
  • Set in Order
  • Shine
  • Standardize
  • Sustain

Sort (Seiri)
The first of the 5S’s is about sorting and organising the work area. A cross functional team, perhaps including production and maintenance employees, should be involved. Try getting people to look at each others’ areas, as a fresh pair of eyes are likely to be more perceptive.
A key part of ‘Sort’ is to identify how frequently things are used. If the items are never used and are simply cluttering up the place, throw them out. There will be objects used very frequently, maybe on a daily basis. Other things will be used perhaps once a week or maybe once a month. Use the frequency of use to decide what to do with tools, equipment or materials. Rule of thumb suggests if used daily, organise the items at the workstation so they can be quickly and effortlessly accessed. If weekly, the items should be fairly easily accessible, but perhaps in cupboards not far from where they are used. Monthly items can be put in stores and retrieved when required.

Simplify/Set in Order (Seiton)

This is all about creating an orderly working environment. A popular phrase is ‘a place for everything and everything in its place’ The idea here is in the workplace all equipment and tools should have a home - a set location. This may include shadow boards, marked locations on floors for inventory bins, accessible tool trolleys, pallets etc. ‘…Every thing in its place’ suggests all these items should be kept in their designated positions, once they have been used. As such, return tools to shadow boards or trolleys rather than leaving them around. Use visual cues like colour coding and labels to make it simple for operators. Lead by example in your own workspace. Then you’ll be in a position to constantly remind employees until this becomes habit and eventually a way of life.
‘Simplify’ leaves you with a less cluttered, more orderly workstation. When considered with ‘sort’, there is an awareness of how frequently items are used. Therefore, if you use it daily, locate it at your work station. If used monthly, retrieve the item from stores.

Sweep/Shiny (Seiso)

This ‘S’ is all about cleaning the work environment. This should be repeated frequently. Whether it’s daily, weekly, after each shift or each operation, an appropriate routine should be established and strictly adhered too. Employees should be constantly aware and looking out for debris, swarf, packaging and other physical waste. More thorough cleaning should also take place to removing grime and dirt. The aim should be a shiny, bright and clean environment. Encourage employees to take pride in their workstations. Walk around and actively look for potential improvements.
To show the dramatic impact deep cleaning can have on a work place, take before and after pictures (mobile phone cameras will do). Consider laminating and displaying images of the work area when it has just been cleaned, so employees know and understand the standard of cleanliness they should aim to maintain.

Standardise (Seiketsu)

Here the aim is to capture the high standards of cleanliness and order that have been achieved, so they are repeatable and the gains are not lost. Standards may take the form of instruction sheets, diagrams or images highlighting what is expected.
5S housekeeping audits can periodically be carried out to ensure employees are adhering to the agreed standards. Consider linking these standards and audits into your Total Productive Maintenance programme or any other periodic servicing activities. That said, cleaning tasks should be taking place more frequently.

Self Discipline/Sustain (Shitsuke)

All employees need to maintain the self discipline necessary to adhere to the new standards set and to sustain what has been achieved. Staying power also ensures this is followed up with continual improvement. A collective commitment from management and the workforce is required so standards do not slip and the work environment does not revert back to old ways. In fact continual improvement should be the aim, with staff constantly seeking out new ways to improve, whilst undertaking their routine work and other 5S activities.
Group encouragement is important, as is self-motivation. Competition between teams (with awards?) can assist here. Team meetings should feature 5S-based agenda items. Self-discipline is about reviewing and refining.


Hatchbacks and sub-four meter SUVs remain in flavour, and are the bread and butter of many manufacturers at large. Most do well in the Indian market despite the shortcomings. Future car models are expected to be much better in terms of overall safety, and the competition is expected to further intensify with new options. Here’s a list of top upcoming cars!
#1 Tata Nexon
The sub-four meter SUV was first showcased at the AutoExpo 2016, and is in our view the finest car that we have seen from the house of Tata. From concept to production, it has not transformed much and retains most of the design features like ceramic beltline around waist and fog lamps.
It would offer great space and would be a true five seater, packaged neatly in a compact platform. Expect great amount of luggage space, making it a perfect all rounder. With the Tiago, Tata has already made a strong comeback and with the Nexon it's expected to retain that momentum. High set headlamps, taillight along with tall shoulder line give the car a much bolder and macho style. And in the features department, the car would offer, Navigation system, voice assistance with a touch screen infotainment system. It’s expected to offer 1.2 litre turbo petrol motor along with the 1.5 litre diesel. AMT would also be in the offing. Expect the car to be competitively priced between Rs 7-10 lakh bracket and lock horns with the EcoSport, Vitara Brezza Renault Duster etc. 

#2 Hyundai Verna
Hyundai Verna
Hyundai has the most modern looking cars among all, a fact well-appreciated by most. An impact of this can be seen on the sales figures too.
Though Verna only manages to enjoy lukewarm success in the mid-size sedan segment and trails behind the cars from the competition – Ciaz and City. Hyundai’s got great expectation from it. The 2017 Verna would receive an all new bumper, redesigned headlamps, boot lid and taillight cluster.
The car is expected to carry dual tone interiors, with no changes to the styling. Expect generous level of equipment too with a larger 7inch infotainment screen, much like the competition. Competition might inspire Hyundai to offer sunroof too.
Expect same engine options i.e. the 1.4 and 1.6 petrol and 1.6 diesel. The future of mild hybrid technology hangs in the balance, and it would a surprise indeed if it makes debut in the Verna ahead of the schedule.  
#3 Maruti Swift Dzire
Swift Dzire
Cars have come and gone, but none has been able to beat the Swift Dzire which manages to retain for years in succession. The Swift Dzire would be based on the 2017 Swift platform and would be an India specific car launched ahead of the Swift.
It would retain a long nose, fluidic haunches of the Swift with a boot attached to it. It’s likely to appear somewhat less truncated than the outgoing car as Maruti has managed to squeeze the Swift overall, while managing to increase the length.
Interiors are likely to retain the sport character with round theme all around. Other sporty bits like the twin pod instrument cluster with red highlights, larger infotainment screen etc. are likely to remain too. This time around, we also expect Maruti to offer mild hybrid SHVS technology too.
Synonymous with fuel efficiency, Maruti would offer same set of frugal and responsive engines, 1.2 petrol and 1.3 diesel. It’s likely that a 1.0 litre petrol might be offered too in addition to the rest. Automatic transmission is expected to be in the offing as well. While safety features like ABS, EBD and two airbags are expected to be standard affair.    

#4 Ford EcoSport
Ford India would manufacture the EcoSport in India and exported it to other world markets. The new car carries visual changes to the face and bigger headlamps that make it look less bulky and Kuga inspired. The overall silhouette remains unaltered though. While the car showcased did not carry a tailgate mounted sparewheel, India version is expected to retain in the latest car to complete the SUV look.
Export version of the car would offer many other engine options available in India and in addition a 4X4 system. India offing would continue unchanged and you would get 1.5 litre diesel, 1.5 petrol and 1.0 litre turbo petrol. A 4X4 transmission would also not be offered in India.
EcoSport continues to be a hot favourite in the sub-four meter SUV space despite missing out a few features that the competition offers in this space. The car is expected to overcome the shortcoming with options like SYNC 3, B&O music system with 10 speakers and a touchscreen system.
Great build quality and high-speed driving dynamics have been two USPs of EcoSport, the new car is expected to retain both characteristics. We only wish that it offered a 4X4 system, which would have made it a complete package.
#5 Chevrolet Beat Activ
Fait Avventura
The Beat did reasonably well in Indian market despite not so great portfolio performance of the Chevrolet overall. Beat Activ pulled the crowd with its funky style at the Auto Expo this year and was a major attraction of the Chevrolet stall. Though the production version may not carry every design feature, we expect it to be reasonably refreshed.
Funky theme would be carried inside too. Instrument cluster, interiors retain futuristic styling and look ultra modern. Many standard safety features are expected to on offer along with a touch-screen system on offer with highest variant. Expect it to be powered by same frugal and powerful engine options, 1.2 litre petrol and 1.0 litre diesel.  
Beat Activ based sedan is also expected to be launched soon after the Beat Activ. The car was showcase along side Activ at the Auto Expo. The sub-four meter sedan has been named Essentia, and it would compete with the likes of Figo Aspire, Xcent in the same. Ativ's USP is expected to be it's futuristic styling and tall-boy design. 


1.Why Entropy decreases with increase in temperature?
 Ans: ds=dQ/T. Entropy is inversely proportional to the temperature so, as temp. Increases, entropy decreases.

2.What is the difference between heat transfer and thermodynamics?
Ans: Heat transfer deals with the energy analysis which in transition and and depends on the modes of heat transfer like conduction, convection and radiation or combination of any modes. Heat transfer deals in non equilibrium domain and conditions while thermodynamics deals with study of system at equilibrium and does not depend on how heat transfer is calculated.

3.When a real gas behaves like ideal gas?
Ans:A real gas behaves like an ideal gas in low pressure and high temperature conditions.

4.What is Hess Law?

Ans:According to the Hess law the energy transfer is simply independent of the path being followed. If the reactant and the product of the whole process are the same then same amount of energy will be dissipated or absorbed.

 5.What do you understand by latent heat? Give examples of latent      heats.
Ans:For pure substances, the heat effects accompanying changes in state at constant pressure (no temperature change being evident) are known as latent heats. Examples of latent heats are the heat of fusion, vaporization, sublimation and change in crystal form.

6.What is the difference between heat capacity and specific heat of the material?
Ans:The heat capacity of material is the amount of heat transformed to raise unit mass of a material 1° in temperature.
The specific heat of material is the ratio of the amount of heat transferred to raise unit mass of a material 1° in temperature to that required raise unit mass of water 1° of temperature at some specified temperature.

For most of the engineering purposes, heat capacities may be assumed numerically equal to specific heat values.

7.Why gas containers are mostly in a cylindrical shape?

Ans:The ideal shape would be a sphere. The container must have the capacity to withstand the extremely high pressure of liquefied gas. A spherical shape helps in distributing these forces uniformly.

8.Explain why re-heater is used in gas turbine

The advantage of reheater is that it significantly increases the thrust; which is a prime reason for its use in gas turbines.


1.     ACCUMULATOR A chamber in which a fluid/ gas can be stored under pressure, and can be taken on system demand.

2.     ACTUATOR Converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. A motor or cylinder.  

3.     BACK PRESSURE Pressure existing on the discharge side of a load. It adds to the pressure required to move the load. 

4.     BLEED­OFF To reduce a portion of pump delivery to the reservoir. 

5.     CAVITATION Where fluid does not completely fill the existing space. Commonly associated with the pump inlet.

6.     CHARGE To fill a hydraulic system above atmospheric pressure. 

7.     DOUBLE­ACTING CYLINDER Hydraulic force can be applied in either direction. (Extend or retract)

8.     HEAD The force exerted by a column of fluid due to its height and weight (density).

9.     HOSE A flexible tube used to transmit fluid / hydraulic energy to a desired location or device in the system. 

10. ORIFICE A small opening found in various devices and components throughout hydraulic systems. Used to control and restrict flow for many applications.

11. PORT The open end of an internal passage. Usually within or at the surface of a components exterior. 

12. PILOT PRESSURE System pressure used to control components. May be at a lower pressure. 

13. POWER PACK A stand alone hydraulic system containing a pump, reservoir, relief valve and drive unit. To produce its own power, often compact.

14. PRESSURE DROP The reduction in pressure between two points in a line or device caused by the increase in resistance. May be induced by fitting an orifice in the system.

15. STRAINER A component that removes solids from fluid commonly by a wire mesh.

16. SURGE A sudden rise in pressure. Can be associated with a sudden shock or blockage to flow. 

17. VENT To allow a non pressurized reservoir to breath to atmosphere. 

18. VISCOSITY The measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. The greater the resistance to flow, the higher the viscosity number. 

19. VISCOSITY INDEX An arbitrary scale for lubricating oils that indicates the extent of variation in viscosity with variation of temperature. 

20. THROTTLE Allow the passing of a set amount of fluid flow. May control flow or create a pressure drop. 


Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) with Answers on Engine Lubrication System

1-Lubricating oil
(A) Minimizes wear in moving parts
(B) Helps in keeping the parts cool
(C) Washes away and carries away dirt
(D) All of the above
(Ans: D)

2-Viscosity index (VI) is a measure for the change of viscosity with change in
(A) Temperature
(B) Pressure
(C) Volume
(D) All of the above
(Ans: A)

3-The following type of Lubrication system is used in two stroke engines
(A) Petroil (mist) system
(B) Wet sump system
(C) Dry sump system
(D) All of the above
(Ans: D)

4-In the following system, lubricating oil is carried in separate tanks from where it is fed to the engine
(A) Mist lubrication system
(B) Wet sump system
(C) Dry sump system
(D) Splash system
(Ans: C)

5-The following type of Lubrication system is used in Aircraft Engines
(A) Mist lubrication system
(B) Wet sump system
(C) Dry sump system
(D) Splash system
(Ans: C)

6-The following type(s) of Oil pump(s) is (are) used in Engine Lubrication system
(A) Gear type
(B) Rotor type
(C) Plunger type
(D) All of the above
(Ans: D)

7-The following is (are) oil pressure gauge(s)
(A) Pressure expansion type
(B) Electric type
(C) both (A) and (B)
(D) None of the above
(Ans: C)

8-The purpose of crankcase ventilation is to
(A) remove harmful particles from the engine
(B) provide proper lubrication to the engine
(C) provide air for combustion to the engine
(D) all of the above
(Ans: A)

9-The following part(s) is(are) lubricated by splash system
(A) Piston and piston rings
(B) Tappets
(C) Cams on camshaft
(D) All of the above
(Ans: D)

10-The following part is not lubricated by Pressure feed system
(A) Timing gears
(B) Valve rods and Push rods
(C) Rocker arms
(D)  Main bearings of crankshaft
(Ans: B)