DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW

Difference Between Laminar and Turbulent Flow






S.no
Laminar Flow
Turbulent Flow
1.
It is a fluid flow in which the fluid layers move parallel to each other and do not cross each other.
It is a fluid flow in which the fluid layers cross each other and do not move parallel to each other.
2.
The laminar flow generally occurs in the fluid flowing with low velocity.
The turbulent flow occurs when the fluid flows with high velocity.
3.
Laminar flow occurs in the small diameter pipes in which fluid flows with low velocity.
Turbulent flow occurs in large diameter pipes in which fluid flows with high velocity.
4.
The fluid flow is laminar when the value of Reynolds number (Re) is less than 2000.
The fluid flow is turbulent when the value of Reynolds number is greater than 4000.
5.
Shear stress in laminar flow depends only on the viscosity of the fluid and independent of the density.
Shear stress in the turbulent flow depends upon the density of the fluid.
6.
The fluid flow is very orderly i.e. there is no mixing of adjacent layers of the fluid and they move parallel to each other and also with the walls of the pipe.
The fluid flow is not orderly i.e. there is mixing of adjacent layers of fluid with each other and they do not move parallel to each other and also with the walls of the pipe.




Summary of the Difference Between Laminar and Turbulent Flow


Laminar Flow

  • The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers of the fluid do not mix with each other and moves parallel to each other, is called laminar flow.
  • In the laminar flow, the fluid layer moves in straight line.
  • The laminar flow always occurs when the fluid flow with low velocity and in small diameter pipes.
  • The fluid flow having Reynolds number less than 2000 is called laminar flow.
  • The fluid flow is very orderly i.e. there is no mixing of adjacent layers of the fluid and they move parallel to each other and also with the walls of the pipe.
  • Shear stress in laminar flow depends only on the viscosity of the fluid and independent of the density.


Turbulent Flow

  • The fluid flow in which the adjacent layers of the fluid cross each other and do not move parallel to each other, is called turbulent flow.
  • In turbulent flow the fluid layers do not moves in straight line. They move randomly in zigzag manner.
  • The turbulent flow occurs when the velocity of the fluid is high and it flows through larger diameter pipes.
  • The fluid flow having Reynolds number greater than 4000 is called turbulent flow.
  • The fluid does not flow in definite order. There is a mixing of different layers and they do not move parallel to each other but crosses each other.
  • The shear stress in turbulent flow depends upon its density.

TOP 10 AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

The top 10 automobile industry in India are


1.    Tata Motors
2.    Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd
3.    Maruti Suzuki
4.    Hero Motocorp Ltd
5.    Bajaj Auto Ltd
6.    Ashok Leyland
7.    Hyundai
8.    TVS Motor Company
9.    Eicher Motors
10.  Force Motors Ltd


Let us discuss about each one of them one by one.



1.    Tata Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1945
•    Employees             : 60,000 (approx)
•    Head office            : Mumbai
•    Establishment        : 1945
•    Website                : www.tatamotors.com


Tata motors is the leading automobile industry in India. It was first founded in the year 1945. It is a public type company with 60,000 employees working in it. The head office of Tata Motors is situated in Mumbai. The establishment of it was took place in 1945.

It produces various products which include buses, trucks, coaches, vans, passenger cars, construction equipment and military vehicles. It is the world’s second largest bus manufacturer, fourth largest truck manufacturer and 17th largest motor vehicle manufacturing company.

Tata Motors has its auto manufacturing and assembly plants situated in Pune, Dharwad, Sanand, Lucknow, Pantnagar and Jamshedpur.
Tata launched his first fully indigenous Indian passenger car in 1998 named as Tata Indica and Tata Nano in 2008. Tata Safari was the first sport utility vehicles (SUVs) launched by Tata Motors in 1998.



2. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd





•    Type                      : Public
•    Founded                 : 1945
•    Employees              : 34,612
•    Head Office             : Mumbai
•    Establishment         : 1945
•    Website                 : www.mahindra.com


Mahindra is a public type global automobile company founded in the year 1945. This company is working with 34612 employees. Its head office is situated in Mumbai. This company was established in 1945.

It is one of the largest vehicle manufacturing company in India by production and largest tractor manufacturers in the world. According to the Brand Trust Report in 2014 it was given 10th rank for the most trusted brand in India.

Mahindra manufactures different vehicles which include jeeps, light commercial vehicle (LCVs), agriculture tractors, SUVs, saloon cars, pickups, two wheeled motorcycles.
 

3. Maruti Suzuki





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1981
•    Employees             : 6,903
•    Head Office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment         : 1981
•    Website                 : www.marutisuzuki.com


Maruti Suzuki is one of the best automobile company among the top ten automobile companies in India. It was founded in the year 1981. Recently about 6903 employees are working in it. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. It was established in the year 1981.

37% of India’s four wheeler market is captured by Maruti Suzuki.

Some of the flagship products that are manufactured by the Maruti Suzuki Company are Swift, Wagon E, Zen, Dzire, SX4 and Omni.



4. Hero MotoCorp Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1982
•    Employees             : 5842
•    Head office            : New Delhi
•    Establishment        : 1984
•    Website                : www.heromotorcorp.com


Hero Motocorp emerges out as a best motorcycle and scooter manufacturing company in India. It is a public type company founded in the year 1982 and established in 1984. About 5842 employees are attached to this company. Its head office is situated in New Delhi. The company was started its journey with a joint venture between Herocycles of India and Honda of Japan.

In 2010 Honda decided to remove the joint venture and in 2011 company was renamed as Hero Motocorp.



5. Baja Auto Limited





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1930
•    Employees             : 8,036   
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1930
•    Website                : bajajauto.com


It is an Indian two wheeler manufacturing Company. It was started in the year 1930 by Jamnalal Bajaj. This Company has an experience of more than 100 years in automobile industry. In the year 2012, Bajaj Auto Ltd is put in the list of top 2000 global Company by Fortune.



6. Ashok Leyland





•    Type                    : Public
•    Founded               : 1948
•    Employees            : 15,812
•    Head office           : Chennai, Tamil Nadu
•    Establishment       : 1948
•    Website               : www.ashokleyland.com


The title for the second largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India is goes to the Ashok Leyland Company. This Company was founded in the year 1948. 15,812 employees are associated with this Company. Ashok Leyland is a part of Hinduja Group. It comprises of 30% share of commercial vehicle segment in India. The head office of the Company is situated in Chennai.



7. Hyundai





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1947
•    Head office            : Seoul, South Korea
•    Establishment        : 1967
•    Website                : www.hyundai.com


Hyundai is a South Korean based Multinational Company established in the year 1967 with a huge experience in automobile industry. It is playing a prominent role in 4 wheeler segment in Indian automobile industry and launched i10, i20 car series to capture the growing Indian Market.



8. TVS Motor Company





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1978
•    Head office            : Chennai
•    Establishment        : 1978
•    Website                : www.tvsmotor.in


TVS Motor Company was founded in the year 1979 with its head office situated in Chennai. It is a part of TVS group which manufactures scooters, motorcycles, mopeds and auto rickshaws in India.



9. Eicher Motors





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1948
•    Employees             : 2,500
•    Head office            : Gurgaon, India
•    Website                : www.eicher.in


Eicher is one of the leading commercial vehicle manufacturers in India. It was founded in the year 1948. The head office of Eicher Motors is situated in Gurgaon, India. The Eicher Motors Ltd (EML) is a flagship Company of Eicher group. This company has about 2500 employees working in it. It is the first company which was capable of producing the first agricultural tractor for India in 1959.



10. Force Motors Ltd





•    Type                     : Public
•    Founded                : 1958
•    Employees             : 8000
•    Head office            : Pune
•    Establishment        : 1958
•    Website                : www.forcemotors.com


In the list of the top 10 automobile industry in india, the Force Motors comes at last position. This Company was founded in the year 1958. Its head office is situated in Pune. About 8000 employees are working in this company. The products offered are force one, balwan tractor, traveler trax etc.

CHECK OUT THE MEANING OF "TDI" WRITTEN ON BACK OF VOLKSWAGEN CARS

CHECK OUT THE MEANING OF "TDI" WRITTEN ON BACK OF VOLKSWAGEN CARS :-

Turbocharged direct injection engine is invented by Volkswagen group. TDI identifies all advanced diesel engines using direct fuel injection and a turbocharger. TDI engines are economical and smooth with high levels of torque and good energy efficiency.

Working of TDI
Fuel needs oxygen to burn and the engine has to be supplied with huge quantities of air to get enough. You can solve this problem with a bigger engine - or you can solve it with a turbocharger - as in the TDI. Driven by the exhaust gases, it squeezes air more tightly into the cylinders.



After being drawn through the turbocharger the air is then cooled by passing it through an intercooler, before entering the combustion chamber where diesel is injected directly into the cylinders at very high pressure through a nozzle. It's this intensive mixing of highly atomized fuel with the cooled compressed air that leads to better, more efficient combustion.

Your driving experience is quiet and refined because effective sound keeps noise to a minimum, while hydraulic engine ensure smooth, low-vibration running.


MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON TRIBOLOGY

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ON TRIBOLOGY:-

1-The following is (are) the example(s) of static friction
  1. Shoe brake applied to a vehicle
  2. Shoe brake applied to a train
  3. Dry grinding stone abrades the surface of metal
  4. All of the above
(Ans: d)

2-As per laws of dry friction, the frictional force
  1. depends upon the nature of sliding surface
  2. is independent of the sliding velocity
  3. is directly proportional to the load
  4. All of the above
(Ans: d)

3-Lubricant converts
  1. Solid friction into liquid friction
  2. Liquid friction into solid friction
  3. both ‘a’ and ‘b’
  4. None of the above
(Ans: a)

4-The following is not a type of sliding contact bearing
  1. Ball bearing
  2. Journal bearing
  3. Bush bearing
  4. Thrust bearing
(Ans: a)

5- The following is not a type of roller contact bearing
  1. Ball bearing
  2. Journal bearing
  3. Roller bearing
  4. All of the above
(Ans: b)

6-In thrust bearings, the load acts
  1. perpendicular to the axis of shaft
  2. in axial direction
  3. both ‘a’ and ‘b’
  4. None of the above
(Ans: b)

7-Boundary friction conditions may develop in journal bearings, when shaft passes through zero speed during
  1. starting
  2. stopping
  3. reversing
  4. All of the above
(Ans: d)

8-The following lubricants are obtained by fractional distillation of petroleum
  1. Mineral oils
  2. Fatty oils
  3. Solid lubricants
  4. All of the above
(Ans: a)

9-For low pressure and low speeds, we use
  1. Mineral oils
  2. Semi-solid lubricants
  3. Solid lubricants
  4. All of the above
(Ans: c)

10-The pour point test is employed to indicate the suitability of oil for ____ temperature operations.
  1. low
  2. high
  3. both ‘a’ and ‘b’
  4. None of the above
(Ans: a)

11-The flash point of lubricant must be _______ the working temperature.
  1. well below
  2. well above
  3. equal to
  4. None of the above
(Ans: b)

12-Specific gravity of lubricant can be measured by using
  1. Hydrometer
  2. Viscometer
  3. Anemometer
  4. Pyranometer
(Ans: a)

13-API number of water is
  1. 1
  2. 5
  3. 10
  4. 20
(Ans: c)

14-The colour code for various grades of lubricants is as follows
Grade of lubricantColour code
A. Spindle oil1. Red
B. Heavy-medium2. Orange
C. Heavy/Extra heavy3. Brown
D. Grease4. Yellow
The correct order is
  1. A-3, B-1, C-2, D-4
  2. A-4, B-3, C-1, D-2
  3. A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
  4. A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
(Ans: b)

15-The bi-weekly lubrication is indicated by
  1. rectangle
  2. triangle
  3. circle
  4. hexagon
(Ans: c)

16-The monthly lubrication is indicated by
  1. rectangle
  2. triangle
  3. circle
  4. hexagon
(Ans: a)

17-Lubrication Oil from automobile machines come under ____ oil.
  1. Clean oil
  2. Less dirty
  3. More dirty
  4. Highly dirty
(Ans: d)

18-The six monthly lubrication is indicated by
  1. rectangle
  2. triangle
  3. circle
  4. hexagon
(Ans: d)