1.)AFTER COOLER – A device used on turbocharged engines to cool air which has undergone compression.

2.)ATDC – After TDC, After top dead centre.

3.)AIR CLEANER – A device mounted on the intake manifold for filtering out unwanted solid impurities such as dirt and dust from air that is being drawn into the engine cylinder through the inlet manifold.

4.)AIR COOLED ENGINE – An engine that is cooled by passage of air around the cylinder, not by passage of a liquid through water jackets.

5.)AIR STANDARD CYCLE – A standard cycle of reference by which the performance of the different internal combustion engines may be compared, and their relative efficiencies calculated.

6.)AKROYD ENGINE – The first compression ignition engine, patented by Akroyd Staurt in 1890.

7.)ALUMINIUM CYLINDER BLOCK – An engine cylinder block cast from aluminium or aluminium alloy, and which usually has cast iron sleeves installed for use as cylinder bores.

8.)ANTIFREEZE – A chemical, added to the coolant (usually ethylene glycol) to lower its freezing point and thereby prevent the coolant from freezing in cold weather.

9.)ANTI ICING SYSTEM – A carburettor unit designed to prevent formation of ice on a surface or in a passage.

10.)ARTICULATED CONNECTING ROD – The auxiliary connecting rods of a radial engine, which work on pins carried by the master rod instead of on the main crankpin. Also called LINK RODS.

11.)BACK PRESSURE – A pressure exerted by a fluid contrary to the pressure producing the main flow. For example, pressure in the exhaust manifold, the higher the back pressure, greater is the resistance to flow of exhaust gases through the exhaust system. This lowers volumetric efficiency.

12.)CLEARANCE VOLUME – The volume remaining above the piston when the piston is at TDC.

13.)COMBUSTION CHAMBER – The space at the top of the cylinder and in the cylinder head or piston or both, in which combustion of fuel and charge takes place. The space enclosed by the piston, when the piston is at TDC.

14.)COMPRESSION RATIO – The ratio between the total volume of the cylinder when the piston is at BDC and the volume when the piston is at TDC.

15.)CONNECTING ROD – The rod made of steel or aluminium alloy usually having an I beam cross-section. A piston pin connects the connecting rod and the piston.


Almost all super bikes and cars nowadays are using a traction control system to maintain an excellent stability and also to provide better safety.In general, a traction control system is identical to some of the commonly and widely used electronic systems in vehicles today like ABS brakes, fuel injection systems and damping control system which uses micro controllers. It can be also called in many other names like ESC (Electronic Stability Control) ESP (Electronic Stability Program) VSA (Vehicle Stability Assist) etc depending on the brand of a vehicle.

The super bikes and cars are usually equipped with high power engines which delivers instant power to the wheels to spin and move on. So when a situation like starting from halt to accelerate instantly and slowing down during cornering and accelerating again, there may a chance of wheel slip between the road surface and the vehicle. In bikes, the contact surface of tyres during cornering are not the same for both front and rear tyres. All these situations may lead to loss of stability & ultimately leading to an accident. 

You may occasionally experience a wheel spin when starting off or accelerating, particularly on a slippery or wet road surface. The Traction Control prevents wheel spin. While the Antilock Braking System ABS prevents the wheels from locking during braking by reducing the braking pressures, Traction Control ensures that the wheels do not spin when driving off or accelerating. To do this, the drive torque at each driven wheel is reduced respectively. Traction Control improves the traction of the vehicle and increases vehicle safety by avoiding unstable driving situations within the limits. 

This feature is available in all super bikes like Yamaha YZF-R1, Ducati Diavel, 1098, Kawasaki ZX14-R etc.

In some systems it also reduces the power output from the engine until the optimum traction between the tyre and road is obtained. In simple words its a reverse mechanism of ABS which senses wheel lock and in here the system senses for wheel spin.


AUSTENITE - The solid solution of iron and carbon achieved by heating to high temperatures above the upper critical temperature. Known as the austenitizing temperature, this temperature must be attained to obtain the proper 
microstructure and full hardness of steel in heat treating. Austenitizing temperature varies with different grades of carbon, alloy and tool steels.

BAINITE - A product of austenite, this term is used by metallurgists to describe a particular structure of steel when the steel is polished, etched and examined with a microscope.

ANNEALING - A term that refers to softening metals by treating with sustained heat at the required temperature, followed by cooling at a controlled rate, while at the same time, producing desired results in other properties or microstructure. Annealing generally refers to slow cooling in carbon and allow steels, with the focus usually being on removing stresses; inducing softness; altering ductility, toughness, electric, magnetic or other physical and mechanical properties; changing the crystalline structure; and finally producing a definite microstructure.

CARBURIZING - Adding carbon to the surface of ferrous alloys to facilitate hardening by quenching directly from the carburizing temperature, or by cooling then reaustenitizing and quenching.

CASE HARDENING - A term referring to a combination of heat treatments of steel involving processes that change the chemical composition of the surface layers by absorption of carbon, nitrogen, or a mixture of the two. The end result is a surface that is substantially harder. The processes are known individually as carburizing, cyaniding, carbo-nitriding and nitriding.

CYANIDING - Surface hardening of steel by carbon and nitrogen absorption through heat treating at a specific temperature while in contact with cyanide salt, and following with quenching.

DECARBURIZATION - Loss of carbon from the surface layer of a carbon-containing alloy when the metal is subjected to high temperatures. The loss of carbon at the surface reduces the strength of the part.

INDUCTION HARDENING - A surface-hardening process in which only the surface layer of a ferrous metal is heated by electromagnetic induction and immediately quenched.

TEMPERING - Also know as drawing, this process involves reheating previously hardened or quenched steel to a temperature below the lower critical temperature, and followed by cooling. Tempering temperatures range from 300° to 1100° F.


If you are parking your motorbike in isolated area without any parking facility and there is nobody around to keep watch or just to look after your ride, you will be worried sick about safety of your precious vehicle. as we all know, handle lock of bikes are not so reliable when a expert lays an eye on it.And thieves are expert in starting the bikes without help of any authentic key.

In such scenario, you can rely on a simplest trick to save yourself from trouble of stolen motor cycle.
Just remove the cap connecting to Spark plug of the engine or just loosen the cap (do not remove completely) to disconnect the power supply towards spark plug.
With this connection severed, there is no way somebody would drive away your motorbike without going through trouble of getting caught.
In general, if the bike doesn’t start, unsuspecting people don’t look for problem in spark plug. That’s where you will have advantage and person with ill intentions would leave your precious ride alone.
Note:This hack might not save your from police officials towing away your vehicle :P


Press working may be defined as, a manufacturing process by which various components are made from sheet metal. This process is also termed as cold stamping. The machine used for press working is called a press.

A simple cutting die used for punching and blanking operation as shown:

1: Bed:
The bed is the lower part of the press frame that serves as a table to which a
Bolster plate is mounted.

2: Bolster Plate:
This is a thick plate secured to the press bed , which is used for locating and
supporting the die assembly. It is usually 5 to 12.5 cm thick.

3: Die Set:
It is unit assembly which incorporates a lower and upper shoe, two or more 
guide parts and guide part bushings.

4: Die Block:
It is a block or a plate which contains a die cavity.

5: Lower Shoe:
The lower shoe of the a die set is generally mounted on the bolster plate of   
press. The die block is mounted on the lower shoe, also the guide post 
are mounted on it.

6: Punch :
This is male component of  a die assembly, which is directly or indirectly 
moved by and fastened to the press ram or slide.

7: Upper Shoe:
This is the upper part of the die set which contains guide post bushings.

8: Punch Plate :
The punch plate or punch retainer fits closely over the body of the punch and 
holds it in proper relative position.

9: Back up Plate:
Back up plate or pressure plate is placed so that intensity of pressure does
not become excessive on punch holder. The plate distributes the pressure
over a wide area and the intensity of pressure on the punch holder is reduced
to avoid crushing.

10: Stripper:
It is a plate which is used to strip the metal strip from cutting a non-cutting
Punch or die. It may also guide the sheet.


Any characteristic of a system is called property. For example: pressure, temperature, volume and mass are some familiar properties of a system. Viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity thermal expansion coefficient, electrical resistivity etc are less familiar properties.Any property may be either intensive or extensive.

Intensive property 

1. It is the property of matter that is independent of the quantity of the substance 
2. The density of single drop of water is same as the density of 5 or 10 litres of water 
3. Eg: density, specific gravity, temperature etc 

So we can say that Intensive properties refer to properties that are independent compared to the size or quantity of the substance. These properties do not change when more of a substance is added or some of the substance is removed. Intensive properties include: density, color, viscosity, electrical resistivity, spectral absorption, hardness, melting point/boiling point, pressure, ductility, elasticity, malleability, magnetization, concentration, temperature and magnetic field.

These properties do not change if the size of the quantity of the substance changes. For example: the hardness of a diamond does not change, no matter how many times the diamond is cut. The color of the salt does not change no matter how much of it is added to the original amount. These all describe the intensive properties of the diamond and salt.

Extensive property 

1. It is the property of matter that is dependent of the quantity of the substance 
2. There is an obvious difference between 1 g of sugar and 1 Kg of sugar both in quantity and value. 3. Eg: Mass, volume etc 

So we can say that Extensive properties refer to properties that are dependent on the size or quantity of the substance. These properties change depending on how much of the substance is added or removed. The value of the additive property is proportional to the size of the system. For example if the size is increased, then the property will also increase. Extensive properties include: energy, entropy, mass, length, particle number, number of moles, volume, magnetic moment, weight and electrical charge.

These properties are directly proportional to the size and the quantity of the substance. For example: if the amount of water increases, the weight of the water will also increase; the more the water, the heavier it will be. Another example: the energy it would take to melt an ice cube is proportional to its size. The energy it would take to melt and ice cube differs from the energy that would be required to melt an iceberg.


  1. Earthing means connecting the dead part(the one which does not carry current under normal condition) to the earth(ground). For example electrical equipment frames etc.
  2. Under fault condition these parts may attain high potential w.r.t earth(ground) so any living being touching these parts will be subjected to potential difference which may result in flow of current of such a value which may prove to be fatal.
So earthing is to ensure safety or protection of electrical equipment and living being by discharging electrical energy to earth (ground).
  1. Grounding means connecting the live part(the one which carry current under normal condition) to the earth (ground) for example neutral of transformer, 3- ph star connection etc.
  2. Grounding is done for protection of power system equipment and to provide a effective return path from the machine to the power source.
  3. During lightening dangerous high voltage can develop in the electrical distribution system wires. Grounding provides a safe return path around the electrical system of your house thus minimizing damage from such occurrences.
Earthing and grounding has a micro difference . So in layman's term we use grounding(earthing) as a common term for both.
Earthing is more common word in commonwealth countries whereas grounding is the word used in North American standards.